What is Irrigation?
Method of Irrigation
In this method, dither is executed in the field and they are either the contour or up and down the slope water from their ditches flow across the field. after the water leaves the ditches no attempt is made of levees.
Suitable if the land is irregular and water is inexpensive and abundantly available.
Most efficient resulting non-uniform distribution and considerable loss of water.
In this method, the land is divided into a number of strips with the help of low lovers called borders.
Check to flood:-
Sprinkler method :
The sprinkler water system is a strategy for applying water system water which is like characteristic precipitation. Water is appropriated through an arrangement of lines as a rule by siphoning. It then splashed into the air through sprinklers so it separates into little water drops which tumble to the ground.
How does the water system sprinkler work?
The sprinkler water system is the strategy for applying water in a controlled way in a manner like precipitation. The water is conveyed through an organization that may comprise siphons, valves, lines, and sprinklers. … At the point when water is compressed through the primary line, it escapes from the turning spouts.
- Traditional Spray Systems.
- Drip Systems.
- Soaker Hoses.
- Rotor Systems.
Basic primary requirements of agriculture production are:
Basic secondary requirements of agriculture production are:
The necessity of irrigation:
When rainfall at the place is inadequate to meet the water requirements of the crops irrigation is necessary.
Uneven distribution of rainfall
When the rainfall in the region is adequate but not even distributed irrigation is necessary.
Increasing crop yields
The yield of crops per ha. Is substantially increase by irrigation as the supply of water is properly controlled.
A growing number of crops
It is necessary if several crops grow during the same year in different crops period.
The importance of irrigation
Agriculture is usually greatly hampered thanks to irregular, insufficient, or uncertain rain. Proper irrigation systems can secure uninterrupted agriculture.
The productivity of irrigated land is quite the un-irrigated land. Crop yields everywhere within the developing world are consistently higher in irrigated areas than in rainfed areas1.
Seeds cannot grow in dry soil as moisture is important for the germination of seeds. With the assistance of irrigation supply, the specified moisture content of soil for the expansion of seed is often ensured.
Multiple cropping during a year is feasible through irrigation. this may enhance production & productivity. In many areas of India, two or three crops during a year are cultivated with irrigation facilities.
Through irrigation, it’s possible to provide the specified amount of hydrogen & oxygen, which is vital for the right development of plant roots.
A plant can absorb mineral nutrients from the irrigated soil. Thus irrigation is important for the overall growth of the plant.
Bringing more land under cultivation is feasible through irrigation.
Insufficient rain can also cause drought & famines. Thus can play a protective role during the amount of drought & famines.
It contributes to the economic process and poverty reduction2. As income and employment are closely associated with output and irrigation increases production, a substantial increase in income is achieved within the countryside.
Advantage of irrigation engineering
- General prosperity
- Increase food production
- Elimination of mixed cropping
- Generation of hydropower
- Domestic water supply
- Inland navigation
The disadvantage of irrigation engineering
- Water pollution by seepage
- It may result in colder and damper climates
- Over irrigation may lead to waterlogging
- Supplying and procuring irrigation is complex
- Breeding of bacteria and mosquitoes causing outbreaks of diseases like malaria etc.
Type of irrigation
- Flow irrigation =perennial irrigation, flood irrigation
- Lift irrigation
Subsurface water system utilizes an organization of polyethylene pipes found simply under the ground’s surface to apply cleaned emanating in the root zone of plants, forestalling airborne float and limiting spillover. Note that profluent that has not been sanitized, for example, from septic tanks and most wet treating the soil latrines, should be discarded underneath the dirt (at any rate 300 millimeters down).
Subsurface water system requires less upkeep than surface water system, and there is likewise less possibility of surface immersion and gushing spillover. By lessening the opportunity of humans to get in touch with, it additionally essentially decreases the general wellbeing hazards.
Basic issues with subsurface water systems are:
Insufficient water system lines to enough disseminate profluent over the necessary zone
water system lines getting hinder or harm.
The framework not planned or affirmed for its area no help concurrence with a certified specialist co-op for normal support and investigations.
Natural subsurface irrigation
The subsurface water system, additionally assigned as sub water system, includes a water system to crops by applying water from underneath the dirt surface either by developing channels or introducing underground punctured line lines or tile lines.
Artificial subsurface irrigation
Fake subsurface-water system: When an open joint waste framework lays falsely, underneath the dirt, to supply water to crops by capillarity known as a counterfeit subsurface-water system. … goes underground and during section through dirt, it might flood harvests, planted brings downlands by capillarity.
Objective of Irrigation
Water is one of the essential elements of human existence. it’s not always possible to urge water systems from natural sources. Here comes the appliance of irrigation supply. It is that the man-made means of supplying water. the most objectives of irrigation supply are given below.
- Ensure enough moisture essential for plant growth.
- Provide crop insurance against short-duration drought.
- Cool the soil and atmosphere to supply an appropriate surrounding.
- Wash out or dilute harmful salt, chemicals within the soil.
- Reduce hazards of soil piping.
- Soften the tillage pan.
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