The Brick Manufacturing Process in 2021 I How to Brick Manufacture?

Brick Manufacturing Process

It may be defined as a structural unit of rectangular shape and size that is made from a suitable type of clay by a different process involving, molding, drying, and burning. 
Brick Manufacturing
Hello friends, how are you? I hope you are alright. Now in this article, I will explain the masonry of brick. Which is the most important engineering material to construct the building. Also if you are an engineer that you know of brick masonry. I will explain the size of a brick, quality of brick, how to the composition of brick, and test of brick for produce quality brick  
First, I will explain the size of the brick. Different countries have different sizes of bricks are available in the market or factory. In the case of Nepal, the stranded size of Bricks is (230×110×55)mm. Which is the standard for Nepal.  Except for this size many sizes of bricks are available in the market. That’s it.
Further, we need to know the quality of good bricks. If you are a site engineer, diploma level engineer, and others also it is an important topic. The quality brick is to be used in any construction work. The brick is divided into different classes which are explained below.

Brick Manufacturing checking the quality

Now friends, without west time, talking about the quality of brick. How to know brick should be qualified for construction. The following points are the checking quality brick:
  • It should have a rectangular shape regular surface red-colored appearance. 
  • It should confirm in size to the (320×110×55)mm as per Nepal standard. 
  • When two bricks are struck together they produce a metallic sound. 
  • A good building brick should not absorb water more than 20 % of its dry weight. 
  • The brick should hard enough so that it is not scratched by a fingernail.
  • The density of good brick should have more than 35 KG/m³.
  • A good brick has a uniform color and structure throughout its body.
  • Brick should not break when falling from 2m height above ground. 

Composition of good Brick Manufacturing 

This topic discusses how to compose good brick for the building. What are constituents require to compose good brick? Friends this topic also important topics. Because we know about the composition of brick. What kind of material is used in the brick. What is the effect of which type of brick is better for the building? 

The followings are the constituents of  good brick 
  • Alumina 
  • Silica
  • Lime
  • Oxide of iron
  • Magnesia 


Content f 20-30% is necessary to form the brick of good quality. It provides plasticity to the bricks. So it helps in the molding of the bricks. 
It is present in excess quality with inadequate quality of sand then the raw brick shrink and warp during drying. 


A good brick should have about (50 -60)% material of the Silica. The presence of Silica prevents the shrinkage cracking and warping of brick. 


A small quantity of lime, not more than 5% desired in good brick. The lime prevents shrinkage of the bricks sand alone is insufficient. By the property of lime causes the brick to melt and then its shape is lost.

Oxide of iron

Iron oxide performs two functions first it helps in mixed with sand in a few seconds and then it provides the red color to brick. It is kept between 5-6% because an excess of it may result in dark blue or black color of brick. 


It is used to provide a light yellow color to the brick magnesia content is only about 1% or less.

Molding of Bricks 

It is the process of making brick of proper shapes and sizes from clay. There are two main methods of molding. Which is 
  • Hand molding 
  • Machine molding 



Hand molding 

This is the process of molding brick using skilled manpower. Even today the most common method of molding is hand molding. The hand molding method required more water (18-25)% by weight.  That then in machine molding. 

Machine molding 

Machine molding is the essential process in all machine mode brick plants. It is both cheaper in the long run and gives brick of uniform quality there are two methods of machine molding. 
  • Stiff mud method 
  • Dry press method 


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Drying of brick

  • After molding of the brick has to dry before burning. This is essential for at least three reasons.
  • To make the brick strong enough to bear rough handling during stacking in the kilns for burning. 
  • To allows loss of moisture from the brick at a slow rate. If the green brick is straightway brought to the kiln for burning the loss of moisture will be fast enough to cause their disintegration. 
  • To save fuel during the burning stage.



Burning of Brick 

The burning of dried brick is essential to develop in then the desired building properties. Such as sufficient strength hardness durability and resistance method of burning. 

The intermittent kiln

Intermittent kilns are those type from which the brunt brick can make available only after a definite interval of time after there are put on fire, that is the brick supply from the kiln is intermittent, not continuous. 

The continuous kiln 

These are brick kilns from which it is possible to get the supply of brick almost continuously. This is because they consist of several chambers where when one chamber is a loading process, the second is the burning stage, the third is the n preheating stage. The fourth is the cooling stage and the fifth is the unloading stage.

Test for brick. 

The brick strength test is the most important stage. For the good quality of brick should be produce strength test is necessary. So friends now I will explain about the test of brick. After the burning of brick, it should be tested. The main important test is two types. Which is the compressive strength test and water absorption test. So guys let’s get a stat for the brick test.

Compressive Strength Test Brick Manufacturing 

  • Take five bricks randomly from a brick store for a brick sample and immersed them in water for 24 hr at room temperature. 
  • After 24 hr take them out allow them to drain and then clean surplus water.
  • Now fill their void by larger of 1:1 mortar stone these brick under damp sacks for 24hr.
  • Place the brick in water for seven days.
  • Take the brick out of the water and drain surplus water.
  • Place the brick flatwise between two plywood sheets.
  • A brick so adjusted between the plywood sheet is placed on the bed of the testing machine and load apply axially and at a uniform rate of 140 kg/cm² per minute.
  • Note down at which the brick fails.
  • This load ‘p’ divided by cross-section area ‘A’ of brick gives the compressive strength of brick. C=P/A.
  • The arithmetic mean of compressive strength of all five bricks shall take as the compressive strength of the store of brick.



Water Absorption Test Brick Manufacturing 

  • Take five bricks randomly from the store of brick.
  • Dry those samples to constant weight by placing them in a ventilated oven at 5°-110°+5°. This takes 48 hr or more.
  • The bricks are weight samples then immerse in water at room temperature for 24 hr.
  • After 24 hr the sample takes out. Each sample is dry and weighs individually within three minutes after it takes out of water.
  • Absorption value calculate by using simple relation 
  • Absorption =(w2-w1/w1)×100
  • Where w1 is dry weight and w2 is the weight after being immersed in water for 24 hr.
  • The average of five values for five samples shall take as the water absorption of that store of brick. 



Classification of Brick Manufacturing 

First Class Brick 

Characteristics and uses
  • Well burnt having an even surface and perfectly rectangular shape.
  • When two brick is strick each other a ringing sound produce.
  • Its compressive strength shall not be less than 140 kg/cm².
  • Water absorption does not exceed 20%.
  • Excellent for all types of construct also suitable for flooring. 



Second Class Brick 

  • Well burnt even slight over burnt accepted. 
  • Compressive strength shall not be less than 70 kg/cm².
  • Water absorption between (20-22)%.
  • For interior work when plastering is to do. 
  • For interior wall but Not for flooring.



Third Class Brick 

  • Poorly and unevenly burnt that it may over burnt or under burnt or under burnt.
  • Compressive strength lies between (35-70)% kg/cm².
  • Water absorption (22-25)%.
  • Use mostly in ordinary and in a dry situations.



Fourth Class Brick

  • Irregular in shape and dark in color. Which is due to overburning. 
  • Quite strong in compressive strength about 150 kg/cm² and low water absorption. 
  • Use in broken from in road construction. 


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