Brick Masonry Wall on Building Construction I Terminology of Brick Masonry

What is the Brick Masonry wall of the Building?

Masonry is defined as the construction of a building unit bonded together with mortar when a brick is only used on the building construction unit, it is called brick masonry. The wall of the building is completely made with the help of brick is called the brick masonry wall of the building. brick is powerful masonry.

Hello guys, I will discuss brick masonry in this article. You already know about the brick. If you don’t know brick please click on the link. Then after reading this article about brick masonry. 

brick masonry wall 

I will explain about following topics in this article :

  • The general principle should be observed in brick masonry. 
  • Defects in brick masonry. 
  • Some technical terms are used in brick masonry. 
  • Bonds in brick masonry. 
  • Strength stress of brick. 
  • The thickness of the brick wall.

So friends if you have any doubts about this page please can directly comment on me. Let’s go to the point,


The general principle which should be observed in the brick masonry wall of the building 

When you can use brick masonry to construct any structure then you can observe some of these kinds of principles. So what is the principle that should be observed in the brick masonry? Let’s know about it. 

  • Brick 
  • Water absorption 20 % per 24 hours 
  • Proper bond 
  • Mortar 
  • Brick should be laid in bed
  • Joint thickness 
  • Plumb and line level
  • Brick on edge on the plinth, window sill, top of the parapet wall
  • Maintain proper bond 
  • An iron fixture of doors and windows 
  • Curing for at least a week
  • Preparation for plastering 
  • Jointly new and old masonry 
  • Expansion joint. 


These are the general principles that should be observed in a brick masonry wall. These are the main things to know when used of brick masonry on the structure. The brick manufacturing company made a standard brick size for the building. 


What are the defects in brick masonry?

On the brick masonry wall, more kinds of defects are produced. So that you also need information about the defects in brick masonry. Because after the brick masonry more kinds of defects are produced due to any kind of reason.

Friends, if you can minimize different types of defects produce in the brick masonry. Before construct of structure, you should have some knowledge about the defects in brick masonry. I will shear you some defects which are produced in the brick masonry which are following:


  • Sulfate 
  • Crystallization of salts from bricks 
  • Corrosion of embedded fixture 
  • Drying shrinkage 
  • Strength of brick masonry 
  • Types of quality of bricks. 
  • Mortar mix proportion 
  • Size and shape of masonry construction. 


What are the technical terms of brick masonry?

The technical terms are the same as stone masonry. But some of the differences in brick masonry are discussed in this topic. So friends let’s go to the technical terms of brick masonry. 

Natural bed

This term is used in stone masonry only.



The horizontal layer of the masonry unit is termed a course. In the brick masonry, the thickness of the course unit is equal to the thickness of the modular brick plus the thickness of one mortar joint. 



A header is a full stone unit or brick which is laid that is length is perpendicular to the face of the wall. Thus the longest length of a header lies at a right angle to the face of the brick. The face of the brick showing width and height of the brick is known as the Header. 



A stretcher is full of the brick unit which is to lay that its length as along or parallel to the face of the wall.



This is the lower surface of brick in each course. This is the surface of the brick perpendicular to the line of pressure. 



Bond is a term in masonry, applied to the overlapping of bricks in the alternative course so that no continuous vertical joints are formed and the individual units are tied together. 



The junction of adjacent units of brick is known as a joint. Parallel to the bed of brick is known as the bed joint. Bet joints are thus horizontal mortar joints upon which bricks are laid. 



It is the certain part of brick that is cut in such a manner where one long face remains uncut. In brick masonry different types of closer is to make

  • Queen closer 
  • King closer 
  • Beveled closer
  • Mined closer 



It is also a certain part of a brick cutting across the width of brick. It is smaller in length than the full brick length. The length of the bat is equal to half the length of the original brick, it is a half-brick. 

A three-quarter bath is the one having its length equal to three-quarters of the length of full bricks. If a bat has its width bevel, it is known as a bevel bat.


Aries:- it is the edge of the brick. 



It is a corner or the external angle on the face side of the wall. Generally, quoins are at right angles. But in some cases, they may be at angles greater than 90° also.


Frog or kick

A frog is an indentation in the face of the brick to form a key for holding the mortar. When a frog is only one face, that brick is laid with the face on the top.



A perpend is an imaginary vertical line that includes the vertical joints separating two adjacent bricks. 


Racking back

It is the termination of a wall in a stepped fashion as shown. 



It is the termination of a wall in such a fashion that each alternate course at the end projects, to provide an adequate bond of the wall to continued horizontally at a later stage. 


What are the types of brick?

Basically, Bricks used in masonry can be of two types :

  • Traditional Bricks (230×110×55)
  • Modular (190×90×90)


What is the Class of brick?

If you don’t know about the class of brick you can visit another page. There were have details about the class of brick. Full details here.


Bond in Brick Masonry wall of the building

Bond is the interlacement of bricks, which form when they lay immediately below or above them. It is the method of arranging the bricks in the course so that individual units are laid together and the vertical joints of the successive course do not lie in the same vertical line.

Bond of various types distinguishes by their elevation. Bricks used in brick masonry are all of the uniform sizes of brick. If they do not arrange properly continuous vertical joints unit result.

An unbounded wall, with its continuous vertical joints unit, results in less strength and stability. Bonds help in distributing the concentrated loads over a larger area.


Some Rules for Bonding 

I will mention some basic rules for the bond in brick masonry. 

The bricks should be uniform in size. The length of the brick should be twice its width plus one joint so that a uniform lap obtain. 

The amount of lap should be a minimum of 1/4 brick along the length of the wall and 1/2 brick across the thickness of the wall.

The use of brickbats should discourage, except in special locations. 

In the alternate course, the centerline of the header should coincide with the centerline of the stretcher, in the course below or above it.

The vertical joints in the alternate course should be along the same perpend.

The stretchers should use only in the facing they should not use in the hearting. Hearting should do in headers only. 

It is better to provide every sixth course as a header course on both sides of the wall of the building. 


What Are The Types of Bond?

Following are the types of bonds provided in the brick masonry wall of the building:

  1. Stretcher bond
  2. Header bond
  3. English bond 
  4. Flemish bond
  5. Facing bond
  6. English cross bond
  7. Brick on edge bond
  8. Dutch bond
  9. Ranking bond
  10. Zigzag bond
  11. Garden wall bond.



Strength of brick masonry 

The strength of brick masonry depends upon the following factors 

  • Type and quality of bricks 
  • Mortar mix proportion 
  • Size and shape of masonry construction. 


Type & quality of bricks 

The strength of brick masonry primarily depends upon the type and class depending upon the nature of available soil used for the brick technique adopted for molding and burning. 


Mortar mix proportion 

The type of mortar and mix proportion is an important factor that determines the strength of masonry. 

Basic compressive stress of brick 35 kg/cm², 70 kg/cm², 140 kg/cm²

Compressive strength of different mortar 

1 part of lime = 3 part of sand = 5 to 7 kg/cm²

1part cement = 8 part sand = 7 to 15 kg/cm²

1:6 (cement: sand) = 30-50 kg/cm²

1 cement = 4 sand = >50 kg/cm²

1 cement = 3 sand = >50 kg/cm²


Size and Shape of Masonry Construction 

The strength of brick masonry walls depends upon 

  • Slenderness ratio of mortar 
  • Shape factor 

The slenderness ratio for a wall takes as the effective height of the wall divide by its effective thickness or the effective length divided by the effective thickness whichever less.

For the column, the slenderness ratio is equal to the effective height divided by the corresponding lateral dimension.

The shape factor takes into account the effect of the shape of the brick.


The value of basic stress is suitable when the units are of common brick shape, but maybe unnecessarily low for the same units whose ratio of height to thickness is greater than that of common brick with a ratio of height to thickness as laid greater than 0.75 not greater than 3.


The permissible compressive stress of brick masonry 35 / 70 / 105

Tensile stress in masonry 1kg/cm²

Permissible shear stress 1.5 kg/cm²

Brick masonry in mud mortar 1.5 kg/cm²



The thickness of a brick masonry wall of the building

The thickness of the brick wall depends upon the following:

Superimposed load per unit length of the wall.

Overall height of the wall

Height of wall between floors 

Length of the wall between piers, buttresses, cross walls.

Strength of brick masonry, which depends upon the quality of bricks quality of mortar and method of bonding.


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