Building Construction Technology I 4 Types of Building

History of Building Construction Technology 

Building Construction Technology is the generation of buildings. In this field, buildings are made in different phases with different techniques. Simultaneously develop humans and buildings. So the building is directly connected with human development. Today discuss this topic in detail. so let’s get started.

Caves were the early shelter.

Hut with bamboos and leaves can be taken. As first civil engineering. Construction is carried out to satisfy the needs of a shelter.
Egyptian construction technology huge pyramids.
Romans developed arches or domes. They used pozzolana, sand, mortar, etc. The arched ribs were supported by stone pillars which led to the idea of formed structures.
The period from 1750 AD onwards is known as the period of modern architecture. Due to industrial development, many new ideas and methods, and materials of construction were developed.
Function structural components such as columns beams slebs have become popular.
The building design is the responsibility of the architect through structural design and building construction is the responsibility of a civil engineer.

Building Construction types.

  • Residential building
  • Institution building
  • Recreational building
  • Industrial building

General component of Building Construction

Basically, the building has two types:


sub-structure or foundation is the lower portion of the building. Loading is located below the ground level of the building. The main function of substructure is to transfer loads of super-structure to the ground. 


The superstructure is the part of a building above the ground.
The component of the building are:

  1. Foundation
  2. Beam
  3. Pillar
  4. Masonry unit (brick/stone)
  5. Floor structure
  6. Vertical transportation
  7. Roof
  8. Door and windows
  9. Building finished.


The part of building construction below the ground level is known as the foundation. It is in direct contact with the soil. The soil which is located immediately below functions is to transmit the load of super-structure to the sub-soil below.

Purpose and function of the foundation

Reduction of load intensity

The Foundation distributes superstructure loads to the large area on the ground so that the intensity of load at its base doesn’t exceed the safe bearing capacity of subsoil.

Even distribution of load

Foundations distribute the nonuniform load of superstructure evenly to subsoil which helps to minimize different settlements.

Provision of level surface

Foundation provides a level and hard surface over which superstructure is constructed.

Lateral stability

Provides stability against sliding overturning due to force such as winds earthquake.

Safty against undermining

It provides structural safety against undermining or scouring due to animals.

Essential requirements of a good foundation

Guys you know, the foundation is the main part of the building construction. most of the buildings are to be safe with a good quality building foundation. without a good foundation building is not safe.

  1. The foundation should construct to sustain a live load and a dead load.
  2. The foundation base should rigid so that differential settlement is minimized.
  3. Foundation should take sufficiently deep to guard the building against distress caused by swelling and shrinkage of subsoil.


Site exploration is the process to obtain adequate information required for the design and construction of the foundation.

Purpose of the site exploration.

For new foundation.

  1. Selection of type and depth of foundation.
  2. Determine the bearing capacity of the soil.
  3. Predict the settlement of the selected foundation.
  4. Determine the ground-level water.
  5. Evaluation of earth pressure.
  6. For existing foundation.
  7. Investigate the safety of the structure.
  8. Predict the settlement ( predict).
  9. Determine the remedial measures such as underpinning.

Method of the site exploration.

Open excavation (test trials pits)

  1. It is the cheapest method of exploration. 
  2. Suitable for shallow deep up to 3m.
  3. In this method, pits are excavated exposing the sub-soil surface.
  4. Soil samples were collected at various depths. 
  5. Soils can inspect in their natural condition. 
  6. Lateral support and groundwater lowering become essential

Boring methods

Auger boring

Auger is used in a cohesive soil and other soft soils above the water table.

  • They can be operated manually or mechanically.
  •  Hand augers can be used up to date to 6m and machine operated can be used up to greater depths.
  • The sample obtained is disturbed and can be used for identification purposes only.

Wash boring

  • It is a fast and simple method for advancing holes in almost all types of soils except soil containing hard rock or boulders.
  • It consists of drilling a casing with a hollow drill rod with a chopping bit at the lower end.
  • Water is forced under pressure.
  • Soil water slurry is obtained in the bucket.
  • Only soil satisfaction can guess.

Sub-surface sounding :

The sounding method consists of measuring the resistance of the soil with depth using a penetrometer under static or dynamic loading. The resistance co-relates with engineering properties of soil such as density bearing the capacity of soil etc.

Geo-physical methods:

This method is used when the depth of exploration is very high and the speed of investigation is important.
It consists of =

  • Gravitational method.
  • Magnetic method.
  • Seismic refraction method.
  • Electrical resistivity method.

Bearing capacity of the soil.

The supporting power of soil or rock is known as
Bearing capacity of the soil.

Gross pressure intensity

Gross pressure intensity is the grand total pressure at the base of footing due to the weight of the superstructure load, self-weight of footing, and the weight of the earth fill.

Net- pressure intensity

It is different from gross pressure after the construction of the structure and the original over hurden pressure.

Ultimate bearing capacity

Defined as the maximum gross pressure intensity at the base of foundation at which soil tails under shear.

Net ultimate bearing capacity

It is the maximum net pressure intensity causing shear failure.
Net safe bearing capacity
Safe bearing capacity

This is the important bearing capacity of the soil. The soil is to be essential to check bearing capacity for the construction of building on that soil. Soil is the main important part of the building. The base of the building lies on the construction site soil on the ground. Which are matters to the construction of the building. So friends if you can construct any building type the soil is to be checked up the bearing capacity. 

So guys how was this article I hope this is very helpful and informative to you. If you like please share this article with your friends who want to learn about building construction. Visit the blog for more engineering-related informative posts. Thanks to visit.


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