Highway Development and Planning | | Top 5 Road History

Highway Development and planning

Hello friends, if you are a civil or highway engineer. Highway Development is the most important part of engineers. basically a civil engineer.  That you know about the history of Highway Development.

Highway development is an important part of engineering. So guys in this article I will discuss the history of road construction. The history of road construction is needed to develop the Highway Technology.

Come on guys let’s talk about the history of road construction technology.


Historical development of Road Construction

Early development

  • The oldest model of travel is obviously on the footpaths. The animals are also used to transfer men and materials.
  • Later simple animal-drawn vehicles developed and this became a common and popular mode of transportation for a very long period after the invention of the wheel.
  • After the hard road developed to the moving wheel in Mesopotamia in the period about 3500 BC.
  • After many techniques used in road construction. The improved road is known as Roman Roads. Hence the Roman roads are one of the first roads constructed by other roads with used many techniques.
  • The oldest model of travel obviously uses footpaths.
  • Animals are used to transfer men and materials.
  • Roads were constructed in large sections since the Roman empire.

Roman Roads

  • Many of the Roman roads were elaborate construction alme of these roads are still in existence after over 2000 years.
  • During the period of Roman civilization more than more roads were made using stone blocks of considerable thickness on the road pavement.
  • The open was built in 312 BC extending over 580 km which illustrate the road-building technique used by Roman.

The main feature of the Roman road:

  • They built straight regardless of gradients.
  • They built after the soft soil.
  • The thickness of the road construction is more than 0.75 to 1.2 m in some places.

The function of Roman road construction technology

A trench of width equal to that of the carriageway was dug along a straight path by removing the loose soil from the top. The trench cut up to a depth until a stratum was reached.
One or two layers of large foundation stones are laid in the lime mortar at the bottom. The thickness of the bottom layer ranged from 10 to 20 cm. Vertical kerbstones are placed along the edges of the pavement.
The second layer of lime concrete with large size broken stones mixed in the lime mortar laid over the bottom course up to a thickness from 20 cm to 40 cm.
Another layer of lime concrete with laid small broken stone with a thickness of 25 to 40 cm.
The wearing course consisted of dressed large stone blocks set in the lime mortar provided at the top. The thickness of the blocks is also 10 to 25 cm.


Trezeguet road Construction technology

After the fall of the Roman empire, their technique of road construction did not gain popularity in other countries.
There is no evidence in the 18th century of any new road construction method so they can use Roman method roadbeds. This trick is reliable at that period.
  • The main feature of the Trezeguet proposal is that the thickness of construction needs to only be in the order of 30 cm.
  • Then after Trezeguet gives one of the most important and essential techniques to improve road pavement. Which water drainage and surface water improvement.
  • This type of road major road development in France.

The function of Trezeguet road construction technology

  • In this road construction technology where the subgrade makes and then stone is laid on the edge of the road for the large pavement.
  • At the two edges of the pavement, large stones are embedded edgewise as submerged kerbstones.
  • The corners of these heavy foundation stones were hammered and then the intersects were filled with smaller stones. Broken stones packed to a thickness of about 8 cm Compacted layer.
  • The top wearing course makes of smaller stones and Compacted to a thickness of about 5 cm and the edge gradually increased towards the center. Given a cross slope 1 in 45 to the surface to provide drainage.
  • The shoulder is also provided across the slope to drain the surface water to the side drain.

Metcalf road construction technology

  • He engaged in road construction work in England during the period Trezeguet was working in France.
  • He apparently followed the recommendation of Robert Phillips.
  • He was responsible for the construction of about 290 KM of the road in the northern region of England.
  • Much of this work is not recorded.

Telford road construction technology

  • He began work in easy 19th century.
  • He also trusted in using stones above the soil subgrade on the road pavement to keep the road foundation to be hard and durable.
  • He improved the road pavement with provided cross slope by varying the thickness of using stone on the foundation.
  • Subgrade drainage was not proper while subgrade was kept horizontally on the road pavement.

Macadam road construction technology

  • It is modern road technology after all.
  • Macadam, identify the subgrade draining and compaction of road pavement.
  • Cross slope provided 1 in 36 from subgrade level.
  • The first method is based on scientific thinking.
  • It realized that the stresses due to wheel loads of traffic get decreased to the lower layers of the pavement and therefore not required to provide large boulders and stones or soling course at the lower level of the road pavement.


Further development Highway Development

Macadam’s method of construction gained recognition as a scientific method of construction and hence adopted by various countries with slight modification.
One of the most popular methods which are even now prevalent in many countries is the water-bound macadam.
The next development was the penetration and bituminous macadam roads, cement concrete roads, and soil stabilization techniques.


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