Pile Foundation | Type of Pile foundation | Uses of Pile in Construction.

What is the Pile Foundation of Building?

Foundations offer help with the construction and move the loads from the design to the soil. In any case, the layer at which the foundation moves the load will have a satisfactory bearing limit and appropriate settlement attributes. There are a few sorts of foundations of building relying upon different contemplations, for example.

Total load from the superstructure.

Soil conditions.

Water level.

Noise and vibrations affectability.

Available assets.

Time-casing of the undertaking.



The foundation which gives in soils, unable to send the primary load to reasonable layer by embeddings generally slim underlying a component called pile is known as pile foundation.

Comprehensively talking, foundations can delegate to shallow foundations and profound foundations. Shallow footings are normally utilized when the bearing limit of the surface soil is sufficient to convey the loads forced by a construction.

Then again, profound foundations are normally utilized when the bearing limit of the surface soil isn’t adequate to convey the loads forced by a design. In this way, the loads must move to a more profound level where the soil layer has a higher bearing limit.


What is Pile Foundation?

Pile foundation, a sort of profound foundation, is really a slim segment or long chamber made of materials, for example, cement or steel which are utilized to help the design and move the load at wanted profundity either by end-bearing or skin grinding.

The foundations are profound foundations. They are shaped by long, slim, columnar components ordinarily produced using steel or supported cement, or some of the time timber. A foundation is depicted as ‘piled’ when its profundity is on multiple occasions its expansiveness.

The foundations of buildings are generally utilized for enormous constructions and in circumstances where the soil at shallow profundity isn’t appropriate to oppose the unreasonable settlement and oppose inspire.


When to Use Pile Foundation of the building?

Following are the circumstances when utilizing a pile foundation framework can be

When the groundwater table is high.

Heavy and un-uniform loads from the superstructure are forced.

Other kinds of foundations are costlier or not possible.

The soils at shallow profundity are compressible.

There is the chance of scouring, because of its area close to the stream bed or beach, and so on.

There is a channel or profound waste framework close to the construction.

Soil uncovering is preposterous up to the ideal profundity because of helpless soil conditions.

It gets difficult to keep the foundation channels dry by siphoning or by some other measure because of the weighty inflow of drainage.


What is a driven pile foundation?

This is a type of foundation is used in low-rise building construction and building structure. In the building construction areas soil is not in good condition like the soil hasn’t bearing capacity. So this type of pile is best for losing soil.


Sorts of Pile Foundation of the building

Piles can be ordered dependent on capacity, materials and establishment measures, and so forth Followings are the kinds of foundations utilized in development:

Based on Function or Use

  1. Sheet Piles
  2. Load Bearing Piles
  3. End-bearing Piles
  4. Friction Piles
  5. Soil Compactor Piles


Types of pile foundation based on materials

The followings are the type of piles based on the materials:

  1. Concrete pile
  2. Timber pile
  3. Steel pile 
  4. Composite pile


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Arrangement of Foundation Based on Function or Use

Sheet Piles

This sort of pile is for the most part used to offer parallel help. Ordinarily, they oppose parallel pressing factors from free soil, the progression of water, and so on They are generally utilized for cofferdams, channel sheeting, shore assurance, and so on They are not utilized for offering vertical help to the construction. They are generally used to fill the accompanying need.

Construction of holding dividers.

Protection from stream bank disintegration.

Retain the free soil around foundation channels.

For disengagement of foundation from nearby soils.

For repression of soil and in this way increment the bearing limit of the soil.


Load Bearing Piles

This kind of foundation is chiefly used to move the vertical loads from the design to the soil. These foundations communicate loads through the soil with helpless supporting property onto a layer that is fit for bearing the load. Contingent upon the system of load move from pile to the soil, load-bearing piles can be additionally delegated streamed.


End Bearing Piles

In this sort of pile, the loads go through the lower tip of the pile. The base finish of the pile lies on a solid layer of soil or rock. Normally, the pile rests at a progress layer of a powerless and solid slayer. Accordingly, the pile goes about as a segment and securely moves the load to the solid layer.

The complete limit of the end bearing pile can determine by duplicating the territory of the tip of the pile and the bearing limit of that specific profundity of soil at which the pile rests. Thinking about a sensible factor of wellbeing, the distance across the pile determines.


Grinding Pile

The grinding pile moves the load from the construction to the soil by the frictional power between the outside of the pile and the soil encompassing the pile like hardened dirt, sandy soil, and so forth Grinding can be produced for the whole length of the pile or a positive length of the pile, contingent upon the layers of the soil. In the contact pile, by and large, the whole surface of the pile attempts to move the loads from the construction to the soil.

The surface region of the pile duplicated by the protected contact power created per unit territory decides the limit of the pile.

While planning the skin grinding pile, the skin erosion created at a pile surface ought to be earnestly assessed and a sensible factor of security ought to be thought of. Other than this one can expand the pile width, profundity, and a number of piles and make the pile surface harsh to build the limit of rubbing pile.

Soil Compactor Piles

At times piles are driven at set shut stretches to expand the bearing limit of soil by compacting.

Arrangement of Piles Based on Materials and Construction Method

Basically, piles can be grouped into two sections. Uprooting piles and Non-relocation or Replacement piles. Piles that make the soil uproot vertically and radially as they are headed to the ground are known as Displacement piles. If there should be an occurrence of Replacement piles, the ground is drilled and the soil takes out, and afterward, the subsequent opening is either loaded up with concrete or a pre-cast solid pile is embedded. Based on materials of pile development and their establishment interaction load-bearing piles can delegate as follows:


Concrete Piles

  • Pre-cast Piles
  •  Cast set up Piles


Timber Piles

  • Untreated
  • Treated with Preservative


Steel Piles

  • I-Section Piles
  • Hollow Piles


Composite Piles

  • Solid Piles
  • Pre-cast Concrete Pile


The precast solid pile is cast in the pile bed in the level structure on the off chance that they rectangular fit as a fiddle. Normally, roundabout piles are cast in vertical structures. Precast piles normally support steel to keep breakage during its assembly from the casting bed to the area of the foundation. After the pile are cast, relieving must proceed according to particular. For the most part, relieving period for pre-cast piles is 21 to 28 days.


Benefits of Pre-cast Piles

Provides high protection from synthetic and natural breaks.

They are generally of high strength. 

To encourage driving, a line might introduce along with the focal point of the pile.

If the piles are cast and fit to drive before the establishment stage expect, it can build the speed of work.

The control of the support can guarantee.

The quality of the pile can control.

If any shortcoming recognizes, it very well may supplant before driving.

Pre-cast piles can drive under the water.

The piles can load following it and drive up to the necessary length.



Hindrances of Pre-cast Piles

Once the length of the pile concludes, it is hard to increment or abate the length of the pile subsequently.

They are hard to activate.

Needs substantial and costly hardware to drive.

As they are not accessible for readymade buy, it can cause a postponement in the task.

There is a chance of breakage or harm during taking care of and driving od piles.


Cast-in-Palace Concrete Piles

This kind of pile develop by exhausting soil up to the ideal profundity and afterward, storing newly blended cement in that spot and allowing it to fix there. This sort of pile is built either by driving a metallic shell to the ground and filling it with cement and leaving the shell with the solid or by pulling out while concrete pure.


Benefits of Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles

The shells are lightweight, so they are not difficult to deal with.

The length of piles can fluctuate without any problem.

The shells might amass at sight.

No overabundance authorization require distinctly to keep harm from dealing with.

No plausibility of breaking during establishment.

Additional piles can give effectively whenever required.


Weaknesses of Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles

Installation requires cautious management and quality control.

Needs adequate put nearby for the capacity of the materials utilized for development.

It is hard to develop cast in situ piles where the underground water stream is weighty.

The bottom of the pile may not be even.

If the pile is un-built up and uncased, the pile can fizzle in strain if there acts and elevating power.



Timber Piles

Timber piles were put under the water level. They keep going for roughly around 30 years. They can be rectangular or round and fit as a fiddle. Their distance across or size can fluctuate from 12 to 16 inches. The length of the pile is typically multiple times the top width.


They typically intend for 15 to 20 tons. Extra strength can get by shooting fish plates to the side of the piles.


Benefits of Timber Piles-

Timber piles of customary size are accessible.


Easy to introduce.

Low probability of harm.

Timber piles can be cut off at an ideal length after they introduce.

If vital, timber piles can effectively pull out.


Hindrances of Timber Piles-

Piles of longer lengths are not generally accessible.

It is hard to get straight piles if the length is short.

It is hard to drive the pile if the soil layers are hard.

Spicing of The timber pile is troublesome.

Timber or wooden piles are not reasonable to utilize as end-bearing piles.

For the strength of timber piles, uncommon measures must take. For instance, wooden piles are frequently treated with additives.


Steel Piles

Steel piles might be of I-area or an empty line. They load up with concrete. The size may shift from 10 crawls to 24 creeps in breadth and thickness is normally ¾ inches. On account of the little sectional region, the piles are not difficult to drive. They are generally utilized as end-bearing piles.


Benefits of Steel Piles

They are not difficult to introduce.

They can arrive at a more prominent profundity contrasting with some other sort of pile.

Can enter through the hard layer of soil because of the less cross-sectional territory.

 It is not difficult to join steel piles

Can convey hefty loads.


The drawback of Steel Piles

Prone to consumption.

Has a chance of straying while at the same time driving.

Comparatively costly.



Reasons for pile foundation disappointment

Pile foundation is quite possibly the most mainstream decision for weighty-loaded constructions and in situations where helpless soil conditions are found at a shallow profundity. Yet, the pile may flop because of various reasons.

One should play it safe before planning piles with the goal that the chance of such disappointment decreases. Reasons for the disappointment of pile give underneath.


  1. The load inferred on the pile is more noteworthy than the planned load.
  2. Defecting workmanship.
  3. Dislocation of support of pile.
  4. End bearing pile laying on delicate layers.
  5. Faulty soil examination.
  6. Selecting some unacceptable kind of pile.
  7. Under-support of the pile.
  8. A rot of piles. (like an assault of bugs, consumption, and so on)
  9. Deformation of piles because of sidelong loads. Incorrect evaluation of pile limit.
  10. Not thinking about horizontal powers for the planning of piles.


Employments of Pile Foundation

A Pile is a sort of profound foundation. It moves the load of the superstructure to the ideal profundity into the soil. Normally foundations make of cement and steel.

Foundations are profound foundations. The frame by long, thin, columnar components normally produced using steel or built-up concrete, or now and again timber. A foundation portrays as ‘piled’ when its profundity is on multiple occasions its expansiveness.


There are various circumstances when a pile utilizes. Followings are the primary situations where foundation use is attractive.

  • If a high groundwater table exists underneath the construction.
  • If the superstructure load is high and non-uniform.
  • It is more financial than other proposed foundation types.
  • Exceptionally compressible soil is available at shallow profundity.
  • The construction situate close to the waterway bed or coastline and so forth, a foundation is recommended to get the design structure the conceivable scouring.
  • If a channel or profound seepage frameworks pass close to the construction, a pile foundation recommends.
  • If soil condition is exceptionally poor and it is unimaginable to expect to exhume the soil up to the ideal profundity.


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