Timber and Timber Products | What is Timber?

Hello friends, what’s up? I hope everything is good. Friends today I will discuss Timber and its Products. I hope you like this article. Please you can read from the start to the end. My objective to write this article, To know about timber and its product, its Seasoning, defects, etc. You can see below for details.


What is Timber?

It is an important type of material for the Engineering field. Timber is vastly used in the engineering construction industry. So friends we talking about timber and this product. Timber is used for formwork, scaffolding, beam, side beam, etc in the building construction industry. So It is also an important thing in the engineering construction field. Friends what you know about timber and Its products.

It is from by the tree. So, first of all, we need to know about the tree. Different types of trees are found in nature. But in the engineering field, good quality timber is to be essential for construction. Without the quality, it shouldn’t use in the construction field. So I will discuss the good quality of timber and its product. First, we can get knowledge about the three from this article.
In this article, I will give you big knowledge about the following topics:

  1. Growth of tree
  2. Classification of tree
  3. Defects in wood
  4. Conversation of timber
  5. Seasoning of tree etc.

How to Growth of trees?

There are two types of growth of trees. Many years time required for the growth of trees. Not possible to grow in 1 year and 2 years. After a long time (10-30) year to preparing to use of trees. In tree form a layer after a complete year. One layer is formed after complete one year. This process is regularly followed year to year. But the water-logged plants are not growing fast at the time period.
So friends, from the engineering point of view there were two types of growth of trees which are the following:

Endogenous growth: A plant grows by the addition of new cells only at the end of the previous year. Year-to-year formation of the new cells. Then this process is regular in the tree. The height of such a tree also grows upward.

Exogenous growth: The plant by the addition of a new layer of cells all around those that grow in the previous layer on the tree.

Classification of tree

Soft tree: That tree yields lightweight timber. They are soft to work and comparatively weak in strength. Also called softwood.

Hard tree: Trees that yield dark-colored denser and strong wood are called hardwood.

Defects in timber

It may be defined as any undesirable characteristics natural or artificial that lower the strength durability and quality of wood. The followings are the natural and artificial defects in wood:

Natural defect

This group includes those defects that are developed in a tree during its growth.
Knots: A knot makes the position of growth a branch on the tree.

Shakes: Shakes are a more serious and common defect. In simple language, they are also called crack.

Cross-grain: Fibber of the wood in a normal tree is usually paralleled. If the fibber is not straight. They make an angle or slope called cross grain. The slope of grain is harmful when it exceeds the specified limit.

Artificial defect

These include such defects that develop in the timber after it felling and conversion to a different size.

  • Checks
  • Warps


Conversation of Timber 

Before the wood is actually used in construction certain operations such as telling of trees, sawing them to logs & poles, etc. become essential. All the processes are conservation of timber and describe under the following heading.


The following two factors should be given due to construction before felling trees for use as structural timber.
Maturity: Trees become mature only after certain years when there is a good balance between their heart wood and sap wood only mature trees should be felled for use in construction.

Timber of Felling
Spring & summer are always bad seasons for felling trees. This is because spring is the season of active growth of trees. The best time for feeling is the beginning of winter. The Winter season is best for the growth of trees.

Sawing of Timber 
Their felling tree is usually cut diametrically at convenient lengths. These are called logs. These logs are first air seasoned for some period & then further cut into transportable parts.

Quarter Sawing 
It is the process of selective sawing of the logs. Quarter sawing is applied only in the varieties of timber. That gives a beautiful appearance to the cross-section of the tree.

Seasoning of Tree

Seasoning is the process of reducing unusual weight, increasing strength, improving the workability of timber, and producing good quality timber wood.

Objective of Seasoning 

  • Reduce much of the unusual weight of timber.
  • Increase its strength considerably.
  • Improve the workability of the timber.
  • Decrease the chances of development of shrinkage defects.
  • Increase the life of the timber.  That makes it more durable.

Method of Seasoning of Tree

Timber can be Seasoned by following the method.

  • Natural Seasoning
  • Artificial Seasoning or kiln seasoning
  • Chemical Seasoning
  • Electrical Seasoning
  • Seasoning by boiling.


Natural Seasoning

This Seasoning is natural in the tree. The natural process can season the tree.

Air Seasoning

This is as get the most common process of Seasoning used throughout the world. In this process timber cut from the tree is stacked in the open air. The timber air Seasoning depends on climate conditions & thickness of the timber.
It may take (1-4) years to bring down the original moisture content of 30 % to a dried level of 16 %.

Advantage of air Seasoning 

  • It is highly economical.
  • It requires little supervision.
  • It is applicable to thick as well as thin wood.

Disadvantages of air Seasoning 

  • It is a very slow process.
  • It keeps valuable land & timber for long periods.
  • Moisture content can’t be brought to certain limits.

Water Seasoning 

This is the process of natural Seasoning that gives good results with a log of the fresh-cut tree. When logs are placed in running water the sap from the cells gets filled with ordinary when the such log is taken out of the water & placed for air Seasoning takes comparatively less time.

Artificial Seasoning

This is the Morden Technology for Seasoning the tree. This method is used for the Seasoning of all kinds of timber in a very less period of time. It involves drying timber in a specially designed kiln where there is perfect control. Over temperature, Humidity, and air circulation.  By this method, moisture content can reduce up to 6 %.

Chemical Seasoning

This is the method the timber piece is seasoned by being treated with a chemical solution like sodium chloride and sodium nitrate. In chemical seasoning, the timber is to dry first from the inside of the tree.

Seasoning by boiling 

This is also a quick method of removing sap from within the cell. The timber is to be seasoned is immersed in water the water is heated to boil on placing in the air such treaded timber dries quickly.

Electrical Seasoning

It is of theoretical importance only. Dry wood is a nonconductor of electricity. But when a high Alternative current ( A.C) is passed through a piece of green timber, heat is generated which removes moisture. This process is a risky method of Seasoning trees.

Preservation of Timber

Various method has been used to preserve the timber from decaying. The primary goal of such treatment is to guarantee a more extended difficulty-free existence of wood.

There are three methods used for the preservation of timber

  • The chemical is applied to the timber in this method.
  • Injection of preservative into a body of timber.
  • Construction of protective cover.

Friends, how is this article about timber? These are the method for producing good quality timber for the engineering construction industry.  So this is also the most important part of the construction field. I hope this article is helpful to you.

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